Eschatological Group

Eschatological Group

Monday, May 30, 2011

A Look Back on DNA

The History Of Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid - DNA

Written By: Crispen Eschobar

Deoxyribonucleic Acid is a hereditary substance in the human body. The information in DNA is recorded in codes made up of four chemicals: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in everyone. The order for these bases is determined by the information available for building and maintaining an organism, similar to the way in which letters of the alphabet appear in a certain order to form words and sentences. This is DNA.  

General History
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In 1865 Gregor Mendel created dna theories based on genetic profiles of pea plants. Because Gregor Mendel was a-head of his time, it took everybody in the scientific community over 3 decades to catch up. Experiments with Plant Hybrids , a paper written by Mendel where he describes how traits were inherited, has become one of the most influential publications in the history of science. In 1935
Andrei Nikolaevitch Belozersky isolated DNA in the pure state for the first time.
In 1958
Coenberg discovered and isolated DNA polymerase, which became the first enzyme used to make DNA in a test tube. In 1972 the first successful DNA cloning experiments were performed in California. In 1973 for the first time, scientists successfully transferred deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from one life form into another. Stanley Cohen and Annie Chang of Stanford University and Herbert Boyer of UCSF "spliced" sections of viral DNA and bacterial DNA with the same restriction enzyme, creating a plasmid with dual antibiotic resistance. They then spliced this recombinant DNA molecule into the DNA of a bacteria, thereby producing the first recombinant DNA organism. In 1980 Kary Mullis and others at Cetus Corporation in Berkeley, California, invented a technique for multiplying DNA sequences in vitro by, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR has been called the most revolutionary new technique in molecular biology in the 1980s. Cetus patented the process, and in the summer of 1991 sold the patent to Hoffman-La Roche, Inc. for $300 million. In 1992 the U.S. Army begins collecting blood and tissue samples from all new recruits as part of a "genetic dog tag" program aimed at better identification of soldiers killed in combat. In 1995 Former football player O.J. Simpson is found not guilty in a high-profile double-murder trial in which PCR and DNA fingerprinting play prominent roles.

The investigation of DNA
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In 1953 there were these two scientists named James Watson and Francis Crick. Watson from the United States and Crick both worked together at the University of Cambridge in England on the discovery of the “double helix,” the first molecular-biological structure. On April 25th , 1953 Watson and Crick published a journal called Nature. Ten years later, this journal earned James Watson and Francis Crick the Nobel Prize for solving one of science most anticipated questions on the human body and advancing the studies of Molecular Biology.
After their discovery, Watson and Crick stayed in touch, but took different paths in science. Watson joined the faculty of Harvard University in 1955, focusing his research on the role of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in protein synthesis. In 1968, he became director of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on Long Island, New York. It conducts research on cancer, plant molecular biology, cell biochemistry, and neuroscience. In 1989, he was appointed director of the National Center for Human Genome Research at the National Institutes of Health and launched a worldwide effort to map and sequence the human genome. In 1994, he became president of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
Crick was made a Fellow of the Royal Society in England in 1959. Working with Sydney Brenner, he sought to "unravel the genetic code" by determining how the sequence of DNA bases would specify the amino acid sequence in proteins. By 1961, they had shown that this translation involves a three-nucleotide code, or codon, which opened the door to new biotechnology research ranging from genetic fingerprinting to screening for inherited diseases. In 1976, Crick joined the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in San Diego, California, where he became involved in studies of neurons and how the brain functions. He served the institute as both a distinguished research scientist and former president. Crick died on July 28, 2004, at the age of 88.

The First Discovery
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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was first discovered in 1869 by the Swiss scientist Friedrich Miescher. He called the white, slightly acidic chemical that he found in cells "nuclein." By the late 1940s, scientists knew what DNA contained -- phosphate, sugar, and four nitrogen-containing chemical "bases": adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). But no one had figured out what the DNA molecule looked like. It was later rediscovered in 1919, by a scientist named Phoebus Levene, that this substance contained a base, sugar and phosphate unit make-up. It was also suggested by this same scientist, that the 'nuclein' substance maintained a 'string' of nucleotide units, linked together by phosphate connections. Furthermore, it was also thought that the 'chain' itself was short and that the bases repeated in short patterns.

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If not for all the discoveries and finds of dna, there would not be so many advances in the science-studies of molecular biology and its attributes towards solving murder cases, lost parents and or lost children, or even the new world of regenerative medicine which started out as ideas in stem cell research and now has brought forth a the new scaffolding theory and practice in the restructuring of damaged tissue and tissue engineering. If it were not for the discoveries of DNA this world would be worse of then it already is. Thank goodness for the men and women who dedicated their lives to the research and studies of Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid – DNA.

DNA Molecular Bio Structure (Double Helix)
The DNA molecule resembles a spiral staircase or ladder. The sides of the ladder are made up of alternating molecules of phosphate and the sugar deoxyribose, while each rung is composed of a pair of nitrogen-containing chemical bases connected in the middle. DNA has four bases - Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine.

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